1. Tong Hook Tong is one of several forms given for the company's name in contemporary newspaper articles. Other variations include Hong Hook Tong, Hook Took Tong, Hong Took Tong and others. This is one example of the obstacles that one encounters in researching early Chinese immigrant history. The romanization of the Chinese name is almost never consistent, not to mention accurate. In the first advertisement for this company in Alta California (October 16, 1852), the theatre was called both Tong Hook Tong and Took Hook Tong. [Return to text]
2. The homosocial and homosexual situation, both in Cantonese opera companies and in Chinatown bachelor society, are topics that merit detailed discussion. The effeminization of Chinese men - as many early laborers took on "womanly" professions such as domestic workers, laundry operators and cooks - is also a large topic one cannot escape when discussing gender problems in Chinese immigration in particular and in Asian ethnicity in general. However, in this article, women and their contribution in Cantonese opera are my focus. [Return to text]
3. The Great Star Theater, located on Jackson Street, is the oldest existing Cantonese opera playhouse. It was built in 1925. However, for various reasons, the theatre has in recent years rarely hosted Cantonese opera performance and will probably be torn down. The "Save the Great Star Theater" campaign started in 2000. [Return to text]
Alta California, October 16, 1852.
Alta California, October 20, 1852.
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--. Interview with Nancy Wong (February 11, 2003).
--. Interview with Samuel Wong (July 8, 2001).
--. "The Production and Consumption of Chinese Theatre in Nineteenth-Century California." Theatre Research International 28.3 (October 2003).
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